Requirements for the degree
1. Courses (all worth 3 credit hours)
Minimum credit hours: 24
Courses in the program: 24 credits (8 out of 26 courses offered, of which 17 are conducted in English)
2. PhD qualification exam
The PhD qualification exam terms: May and November
3. Proposal of thesis subject
In order to propose a thesis subject, the PhD candidate has to suceed in the qualification exam.
Min. 2 semesters after the PhD qualification exam
Original scientific and/or technological research
To complete the doctoral study time granted for:
The candidate with master degree: 8 semesters
The candidate with undergraduate degree: 10 semesters
Minimum: 5 semester
Adsorption and Ion Exchange in Environmental Engineering
Advanced Oxidation Processes for the Treatment of Toxic and Refractory Organic Pollutants
Atıksu Arıtımında Akışkan Yataklı Reaktörler
Bütünleşmiş Ekosistem Modelleri
İçme Sularında Organik Madde Kontrolü
Kirlenmiş Ortamların İyileştirilmesi
Reactor Engineering for Environmental Processes
Theory of Filtration
Transport Phenomena in Environmental Processes
Experimental Characterization of Biological Treatment Systems
Principles and Applications of Ecotoxicology
Waste Minimization, Recycling and Clean Technologies
Su ve Atıksu Arıtımında Çökelme
Dezenfeksiyon Teorisi ve Tasarımı
Integrated Watershed Management
Çevre Mühendisliğinde Membran Prosesler
Kimyasal Arıtma Proseslerinin Modellenmesi
Special Topics in Environmental Engineering
Biofilm Theory and Applications
Computer Aided Design of Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Systems
Environmental Fluid Mechanics
Adsorption and Ion Exchange in Environmental Engineering (English)
Adsorption and ion excahnage as a physicochemical process, Sorption processes, Fundamentals of adsorption/adsorption systems, Adsorption equilibria and adsorption isotherms, Adsorption kinetics (steps in adsorption, rate limiting steps, mass balance, models), Factors affecting adsorption, Adsorption systems - batch and continuous systems, Breakthrough anaysis, Characteristics of activated carbon, Activated carbon adsorption systems, Fundamentals of ion exchange and its comparison with other types of adsorption, Ion exchange systems, Ion exchange systems in practice, Examples of adsorption and ion exchange systems.
Advanced Oxidation Processes for the Treatment of Toxic and Refractory Organic Pollutants (English)
Introduction: Definition, categorization and function of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), advanced oxidant types, advantages, disadvantages, factors affecting AOP efficiency. Definition/type of radicals, radical scavengers, their formation in the nature and in industrial applications, radical detection methods. Photochemical oxidation: Light sources, actinometers, photoreactor types. Photolysis of H2O2 and O3, Fenton/Photo-Fenton chemistry, Figure-of-Merits for AOPs, EE/O and EE/M calculations. Laboratory applications: H2O2/UV-C, actinometry, calculation of Io, EE/O, EE/M and photonic efficiencies (=j and V). Ozone and AOPs: Costs, ozone generation techniques, ozone reactor types, free radical formation by ozone decomposition, initiators, promoters, terminators, function of radical scavengers for ozone and AOPs. Laboratory applications: O3 and O3/H2O2. Determination of H2O2 and O3 consumption, optimum dose, ozone absorption and decay. Mid-term exam, submission of laboratory reports. AOP applications for: Water re-mediation, disinfection, industrial wastewater pre- and post- treatment, bioaugmentation, detoxification. Sludge stabilization (conditioning) and adsorbent regeneration by pressurized oxidation processes (wet air oxidation). Emerging technologies of AOPs: Examples for transition metal or semiconductor mediated photocatalysis, g-irradiation, ultrasound and combinations with catalysts and oxidants, supercritical water oxidation.
Control of Aerosols (Turkish)
Atmospheric aerosols, characters, effects on health and environment, size distributions, dynamics of single aerosol particles, Stokes' law ,thermodynamics of aerosols, nucleation, transformation of aerosols, aerosols in organic structure, atmospheric diffusion of aerosols, aerosols removal mechanisms, dry and wet deposition, radiative effects of atmospheric aerosols, visibility, effects of aerosols on climate changes, atmospheric aerosols measurement techniques.
Fluidized Bed Reactors in Wastewater Treatment (Turkish)
Introduction; Fluidized Bed; Mechanics of Fluidization; Velocity Gradient in Turbulent Flows; Filter Backwashing; Characteristics of Biological Fluidized Bed Reactors ; Modeling Bed Expansion and Biomass Hold-up; Biofilm Detachment Mechanisms in Fluidized Beds; Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Reactors; Fluidized Bed Reactors in Water Treatment; Nitrification, Denitrification Fluidized Bed Reactors; Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactors (AFBR); Cost Analysis of Fluidized Bed Reactors.
Integrated Ecosystem Models (Turkish)
Introduction, concepts of modelling, ecological modelling-submodels, conceptual models, steady state models, modelling population dynamics, dynamic biogeochemical models, application of ecological models in the environmental management, ecosystem characteristics and models.
Diffuse Pollution (English)
Introduction- Historical perspectives and trends in environmental degradation; environmental systems and their changes; important examples of systems affected by diffuse pollution; hydrologic considerations; atmospheric deposition; erosion and sedimentation; groundwater and base-flow concentration; urban and highway diffuse pollution; agricultural pollution; toxic pollution and its impact on receiving waters; integrated planning and control of diffuse pollution- watershed management; modelling and monitoring of diffuse pollution.
Adverse effects of eutrophication on ecology, economy and public health; eutrophication and water quality management; indicators to determine trophic states of water bodies; classification of water bodies according to nutrient level; physical and chemical factors affecting primary productivity: light, temperature, oxygen, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, sulphur, silica, heavy metals; external and internal nutrient sources; the relations between trophic indicators and nutrient loading; eutrophication in marine waters and especially in shore lines; modeling of eutrophication processes; eutrophication control techniques; biomanupulation.
Control of Organic Matter in Drinking Water (Turkish)
The importance of organic matter pollution in drinking water; Characteristics of organic matter; Organic pollution sources and polluting substances; Organic substance analysis and measurement techniques, identification and monitoring program; Factors affecting THM formation; THM monitoring in treatment plants and THM control and treatment methods for different treatment schemes; Trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water, THM formation and THM parameters; Organic matters removal processes; Air striping processes, fundamentals of air striping issue; Oxidation processes: Ozone/UV, H2O2/UV and H2O2/Ozone; Filtration techniques (Membrane processes): Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration; Electrochemical Processes: Electrodialysis; Adsorption and Ion exchange.
Remediation of Contaminated Sites (Turkish)
Pollutions in soil and groud water and their environmental impacts. Quantitative risk assessment. Limiting values and quality classes in soil pollution. Remedial investigations and determination of dimensions of soil pollution. Feasibility study for soil remediation. Selection remediation plans. Implementation of soil remediation plans and post monitoring. Remedial technologies for contaminated soils: Soil-bentonite slurry walls. Biological treatment. Physical chemical extraction. Thermal processes. Advanced oxidation processes. Solidification/stabilization.
Reactor Engineering for Environmental Processes (English)
Introduction and Scope: General classification of reactors with respect to the phases involved, Classification with respect to flow characteristics, reactor engineering as opposed to reaction engineering, factors affecting reactions . Hydrodynamic characteristics of reactors: flow regimes, phase holdups, interfacial area, pressure drops, bubble rise velocities, velocities of liquid and solids, continuous flow, batch, and sequencing batch reactors. Overview of kinetics in major reactor types. Mixing in continuous flow reactors: residence time distributions, axial dispersion, methods of experimental determination, ideal reactors, non ideal reactors, mixing in non ideal reactors, examples from the literature related to environmental processes:ideal reactors (CSTR, plug flow), non ideal reactors (ponds, packed beds, trickling filters, bubble columns, airlift and sludge reactors, fluidized beds), mixing in non ideal reactors. Transport phenomena in reactors: basic mass transfer concepts, gas-liquid mass transfer, methods of determination of oxygen transfer rates, mass transfer coefficients for bubbles and bubble swarms, factors affecting mass transfer coefficients, examples from the literature related to environmental processes
Aquatic Chemistry (Turkish)
The thermodynamic basis for definition and examination of the systems in aquatic chemistry; properties of water and structure of water as a solvent; acids and bases: general definitions, definition of composition and calculation approaches, buffer systems and titration curves, inorganic carbon chemistry, alkalinity and acidity; structure and properties of complex compounds, importance and theory of complex compounds; precipitation and dissolution reactions: definitions and concepts, effects of complex compounds on solubility; oxidation and reduction reactions: definitions and concepts, definition of composition, calculation approaches.
Theory of Filtration (English)
Structure of Granular Media; Linear Flow through Porous Media; Nonlinear Flow through Porous Media; Fluidization of Filter Media; Backwashing in Rapid Filters; Shape Factors in Fluidization Phenomena; Dispersion through Filter Media; Rate Equations and Concentration Distributions; Flow through Unsaturated Media; Dispersed Flow Systems and Biological Filtration.
Transport Phenomena in Environmental Processes (English)
1. Introduction and Scope: Basic definitions of momentum, energy, and mass transfer, identification of these in environmental processes, classification of environmental processes with respect to transport phenomena
2. Models for diffusion with examples from various engineering and science principles, fundamentals of diffusion: diffusion in dilute solutions, diffusion in concentrated solutions, dispersion, diffusion coefficients in gases and liquids, diffusion of interacting species,
3. Fundamentals of mass transfer for environmental processes: definitions of mass transfer coefficients, correlations for mass transfer coefficients applicable to environmental processes, dimensionless groups and their significance, examples related to special systems: absorption, adsorption, forced convection, free convection, case studies on selected literature for environmental processes for major reactor types: batch reactors, sequencing batch reactors, continuous flow reactors (packed beds, ponds, bubble columns, trickling filters, airlift and sludge reactors, fluidized beds)
4. Diffusion coupled with other processes: heterogeneous chemical and biological reactions, homogeneous chemical and biological reactions, effects of diffusion rate on the reaction rate, membranes, examples from the literature related to environmental engineering applications
Experimental Characterization of Biological Treatment Systems (English) (Environmental Biotechnology Program)
Principles and Applications of Ecotoxicology (English)(Environmental Biotechnology Program)
Waste Minimization, Recycling and Clean Technologies (English)
Need for clean technologies; factors and regulations affecting the development of clean technologies: recycle and reuse, waste minimization, industrial risk management, sustainable development, resource limitations, eco-labeling environmental audits, marketing, biodegradability, hazardous and aqueous waste handling and treatment, standards; Energy related issues: renewable energy, energy saving, thermodynamics of technosystems; Green technology, clean manufacturing and waste management strategies-case examples: food industry, synthesis processes, energy supply, electronic products, specialty chemicals, automotive industry, pharmaceutical chemicals, waste treatment and land remediation technologies; Automation and instrumentation; centralized versus decentralized production, integrated production, globalization; statutory definitions and regulations for clean technologies, US and EU approaches, developing countries, international conventions.
Sedimentation in Water and Wastewater Treatment (Turkish)
The role of sedimentation in water and wastewater treatment, types of settling, a brief overview of settling theories, discrete settling, flocculent settling, zone settling, hindered settling, the theory of solids flux and applications to settling tank design and operation problems, flocculation of biological sludge (bioflocculation), settling characteristics of biological sludge, the measurement of settleability /flocculability and performance of secondary settling tanks, settling tank design procedures based on sludge settlability, deterioration of settlabiltiy; sludge bulking and foaming, mathematical modeling of settling tanks, design details practical considerations, laboratory: zone settling, sludge volume index (SVI), diluted sludge volume index (DSVI)
Design and Theory of Disinfection (Turkish)
Definitions, disinfection alternatives, mechanisms, factors affecting disinfection, effectiveness of the disinfectants, disinfection kinetics and models, Hydraulic considerations, Halogen disinfection, Chemical and physical characteristics of disinfectants, Ozone disinfection, Ultraviolet disinfection, Maturation ponds, Safety and occupational health considerations, Design of the facilities, Disinfection by products and their control.
Integrated Watershed Management (English)
Concept of watershed and reason of watershed management, physical properties, socio-demographic properties, land-use planning, evaluation of natural sources, pollution within watershed - polluting sources, ecosystem change, water quality, data collection and evaluation, legal/administrative structure, decision- making systems and processes, administrative associations, national and international application examples on integrated watershed planning.
Membrane Processes in Environmental Engineering (English)
Introduction; Mechanisms and Characteristics of Membranes; Membran Production; Membran Processes; Mass Transport in membranes; Concentration Polarization; Module Design and Module Characteristics; Fouling potential in Membranes;Feed Water Pretreatment; Sea Water and Brackish Water Desalination; Special Applications of Pressure-Driven Membrane Processes; Cost Analysis of Membran Treatment Plants.
Modelling of Chemical Treatment Processes (Turkish)
Basic approaches in modeling of environmental engineering; equilibrium, steady state, open and closed systems; modeling of ammonia, volatile organic carbon and carbon dioxide removals by air stripping; modeling of carbonate removal by chemical precipitation; modeling of sulfate removal by chemical precipitation; modeling of heavy metal removal by chemical precipitation; modeling of fluoride removal by chemical precipitation; modeling of ammonia removal by chemical precipitation; modeling of cyanide removal by chemical oxidation; modeling of sulfide removal by chemical oxidation; modeling of chromium removal by chemical reduction.
Special Topics in Environmental Engineering (English)
Management related issues : Water quality management and case studies for organized industrial districts: General districts, specialized districts, small-scale industrial establishments; Sensitive zones, approaches and case studies; Agricultural pollution; Storm water quality control; Water reuse. Treatment systems : Biological treatment of saline wastewaters; Biological treatment of phenolic waste; Biological treatment of strong wastewater; Combined treatment leachate - strong wastewater - domestic wastewater. Non-conventional polluting parameters and treatment : Color; Toxicity; Hormone disruption.
Biofilm Theory and Applications (English)(Environmental Biotechnology Program)
Bioremediation (English)(Environmental Biotechnology Program)
Computer Aided Design of Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Systems (English) (Environmental Biotechnology Program)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics (English)
The Role of Fluid Mechanics in Environmental Management. Buayent Jets and Plumes. Density - Stratified Flow in a Natural Environment. Basic Definition and Concepts. Diffusion, Dispersion Convection, Advection and Dillution. Fick's Law of Diffusion. Random Walk and Molecular Diffusion. Mathematics of the Diffusion Equations. Turbulent Diffusion. Statistical Concepts. Relative Diffusion of Clouds. Shear Flow Dispersion. Dispersion in Laminer and Turbulent Flows. Mixing in Rivers. Turbulent mixing in Rivers. Longitdinal Dispersion. Mixing in Reservoirs and Lakes. External Energy Sources for Mixing. Vertical and Horizontal Mixing in Lakes. Mixing in Coastal Waters. Mixing Caused By Wind, Tide and Other Currents. Longitudinal Dispersion and Salinity Intrusion. Turbulent Jets and Plumes. Basic Equations. Some Engineering Applicatios. Hyrdraulic of Vegetated Flow. Hydraulic of Porous Wall Pipes. Summary of The Topics.